The Difference between Wet & Dry Systems
A fuel injected dry manifold system uses a nitrous ONLY injector to deliver only nitrous oxide to the intake. A wet manifold system introduces fuel and nitrous into the intake manifold usually through a combined fuel and nitrous injector. With a dry manifold system, the additional fuel is supplied by increasing fuel delivery through the original fuel injectors when the nitrous system is activated. It is called a dry manifold system because there isn't any fuel present in the intake manifold.
How the kit works
The Nitrous oxide injection kit begins with a supply cylinder containing pressurised liquid nitrous oxide. This cylinder is connected by means of a delivery hose to a normally closed electric solenoid valve. This solenoid valve, which is usually mounted in a cool area under the bonnet, is engaged and disengaged via a throttle switch (either a micro-switch or an electronic unit). The fuel solenoid valve receives fuel from a 'T' piece, which is tapped into the fuel delivery line, this is also activated by the same switch. The nitrous oxide and fuel that is to be delivered to the engine's air inlet is conveyed via two delivery lines to an injector mounted in the inlet tract. The amount of nitrous oxide and fuel is adjustable by means of metering jets installed in the solenoid outlet fittings.
Adjusting the power level
The Nitrous kit is designed for multiple power levels. The power level is controlled by metering jets installed in the solenoid outlets / jet holders. To change the power output, all you need to do is install the appropriate set of jets.
Highpower Solenoids VS. Nitrous Express (NX) Solenoids
Exploded HP Solenoid
Exploded NX Solenoid
HP Solenoid Top View
NX Solenoid Top View
Starting at the body
The Stainless body of a conventional solenoid weighs nearly 3 times the amount of an HP Pulsoid body. The flow path through a conventional solenoid body causes the gas to change direction 3 times in total. In HP Pulsoids the gas only changes direction once. The fewer the changes in flow direction the more flow you achieve through the unit, making it more efficient. The machining inside a conventional solenoid body (that creates the flow path) is course and very disruptive to flow. This has been designed/machined without any regard to flow and as a consequence will not only cause bad flow but inconsistent flow between solenoids. The machining inside the HP Pulsoid is of a very high quality (as can be seen in the photos) and has no adverse effects on the flow of nitrous or fuel.
The seats used in all conventional solenoids are made from stainless steel, which has an irregular and sharp molecular structure. This 'rough' material is erroneously matched with a contrasting 'soft' plunger seal, which results in wear and damage. Machining can't change the physics of a material, so no matter how smooth the steel seems it will still harm the seal.
The HP seat is made from a thermo plastic material which has a spherical molecular structure, similar to the material used for the seal. Because they both have smooth molecular structures neither part will ever wear and in fact polish each other with use.
Most plungers are machined to an acceptable standard and are made from suitable materials.
The plunger seal material used in most solenoids is PTFE, which although seals well, suffers from particle impregnation and retention. The debris digs into the material and stays there, which eventually causes leakage. The companies who sell these solenoids are aware of the problem and offer re-conditioning kits, however it's too late and too little when you've had an engine failure as a consequence of the solenoid leak that could have been prevented by a better design.
The HP Pulsoid uses a unique material, which due to its molecular structure does not wear and actually rejects particles meaning leak free long life operation. As a consequence we do not offer a reconditioning kit for them.
The spring used in conventional solenoids will obviously do its job but as itÃƒâ€¢s an external spring (which needs a bigger chamber to house it), there will be more vaporisation of the nitrous liquid into gas as it passes through the solenoid.
The HP Pulsoid is fitted with an internal spring, which means the size of the chamber is small, so it's not a problem.
The plunger tube/housing.
The plunger tubes in conventional solenoids are made from 3 separate parts that are friction welded together. The friction weld plays a big part in solenoid wear and seizures. The welding process causes the bore to distort, consequently as the solenoid is opened and closed the plunger rubs on the distorted parts of the bore and causes magnetic steel particles to break off. The problem is that these steel particles are then magnetized to the plunger and eventually cause the plunger to seize in the tube/housing. This situation is aggravated by the very close plunger to bore tolerance used in such solenoid designs.
The HP Pulsoid has a UNIQUE plunger tube/housing which is an integral part of the billet alloy body (which you can see on the photograph) and doesnÃƒâ€¢t require any welding. The material used is aluminium so if for any reason wear occurred, the particles produced would not be magnetic and would be carried out of the solenoid by the flow of nitrous, etc. The bore to plunger clearance is enough for the plunger to float centrally within the magnetic field without making any contact between the 2 parts. However even if they were to make contact, aluminium is a very good bearing material and thanks to the very smooth machining of the internal bore, wear is still unlikely to be of any consequence.
Nylon Lines vs. Braided SS
NOTE: Our main focus is to give you facts on how nylon line is better for nitrous use to achieve the best performance. The rest of the info is to re-assure you that the nylon is not inferior to braided SS for nitrous use. We are not questioning the quality of braided SS as much as we are noting its poor application for nitrous use. We would not spend triple the amount on our solenoid production costs over the competitors to skimp on the supply line costs if we didn't think nylon was the best for nitrous use over braided SS. We do however supply braided SS from the bottle to the nitrous solenoid for certain track regulation applications and power levels over 150 bhp, as we do not have nylon line big enough to flow optimally yet.
1) Braided can handle more pressure.
a) Yes it can BUT why do you want to handle more. Nitrous above 1,000 psi is WRONG anyway, and we have the BOV to control pressure from going beyond this pressure, so what's the point of using pipe than can handle 6,000 psi
2) The outer braid "conducts" heat and "holds" heat.
3) People also route the braided pipe near hot engine parts as they think it's indestructible (which vaporizes the liquid to gas) and can result in NO extra performance
4) The fittings at the ends of the braided pipe may not have a much bigger bore than the bore of our nylon pipe, but that's the core of the problem. The pipe itself is MUCH bigger and as the liquid passes through the fittings it expands and dilutes as it passes into the large bore pipe.ÃƒÅ NONE of this applies to our pipe as the fittings are external to the pipe.
5) The MUCH larger bore of the braided pipe acts as a reservoir for the initial gaseous (NOT LIQUID) build-up. This results in a DRAMATIC loss in performance if it is not PURGED (WASTED) from the pipe prior to EVERY use. The VERY small bore of our pipe means there is MINIMAL gas build-up so a PURGE (WASTE) solenoid is NOT NEEDED.
6) In competitor's kits the braided pipe comes in a fixed length and you have to coil up the surplus, which results in an unnecessarily LARGER waste of gas. My pipe can be cut to the MINIMUM length required ONLY.
7) The braided pipe is too bulky to run inside the car so it is usually run underneath the car (where it's VERY HOT). This vaporizes the liquid even more, producing MORE WASTE gas and poor power. Nylon pipe can be run with the wiring loom inside the car where it is relatively cool.
Because nylon pipe "looks" like it will melt, but will not. "Sensible" people route it so it's well away from heat (exhausts), this means the pipe is cooler (avoiding vaporization). If the pipe burst (which is NOT dangerous), it means the route is wrong and needs more thought, thus preventing a power loss due to heat build up in the pipe
9) At some point the pipe comes into contact with electrical components. The braided hose may rub through wires or insulation and cause a short circuit resulting in an electrical FIRE (seen this a couple of times). This is NOT even a low risk factor with nylon pipe.
*Note*: Words from an unbiased professional in the high pressure line field.
I have commercially made many braided pipes (both crimped and compression) and have worked in industrial computing (pneumatics) and now do hydraulic work on "cherry pickers", so I have also used my fair share of nylon ! I'll by-pass the performance argument, simply saying "size for size (internal) it should be the same". Now reliability is another matter.
BRAIDED HOSE; Hands down, I admit I love its looks. BUT I hate having to use the damn stuff ! 99.9% of problems are caused in the making of a hose, firstly you cut a length to size, without a diamond saw its practically impossible to cut cleanly, then you inspect the cuts, one tiny nick in the PTFE and you throw your carefully cut length away, then you fit the back nut and have to separate the braid from the PTFE, WITHOUT NICKING IT and insert the olive. You carefully insert the fitting into the pipe (do a few and your hands will be red raw !) and moly lube the threads, now tighten the back nut to the appropriate torque setting for the size of fitting / hose (the reason they make alloy spanners, it shouldn't be that bloody tight ). Hopefully you managed to do both ends without falling foul of any number of miniscule pit-falls and you get to pressure test the hose. Crimping isn't much different, just make sure the machine stays calibrated and the dies stay clean or you might as well foul about with a compression fitting because it'll fail the same. Now do you wonder if that shiny braided pipe was made by someone who cares ? Maybe it was made by someone on piece rate, checking every one in a hundred because the firm accepts a return rate of 10%, they don't care if the crimping has constricted the pipe 50%. If braided gets damaged it is VERY hard to tell, apart from a slightly uneven braid or maybe a slight flattening it looks fine, pressure test it and find out, better than that try holding a test pressure for a while, the number of hoses I see fail the extended test is unbelievable. Braided isn't tough, it isn't heat proof, metal is an extremely good conductor and just because it's used for brake pipes doesn't mean it doesn't expand, it just expands less than reinforced RUBBER, in comparison to nylon it expands a lot. Braided pipe is a PTFE core surrounded by a steel braid that is bonded physically to the core (the wire bites into the ptfe) the connector is simply a smooth tube that goes inside the PTFE, it's held in place against pressure by placing a tapered olive between the braid and PTFE core and using a nut with the same taper to wedge the braid under the nut while at the same time "crushing" the olive around the PTFE, clamping the PTFE onto the spigot (like a jubilee clip). In theory it works fine. BUT, if the PTFE core is nicked or damaged in any way during the cutting of the pipe or during the fitting of the olive or even while pushing the spigot into the pipe, that clamping force will split the PTFE. Overtightening the nut also forces the braid to dig to tightly into the olive and put an uneven stress on the PTFE, again splitting the PTFE. A slight mark or roughness on the spigot has the same effect. PTFE is a funny material, when clamped to these pressures it only takes a minute scratch or fault to propagate a split. Overtightening also has another effect, that spigot isn't all that strong, it is actually fairly easy to reduce its internal diameter by overtightening the nut, this leads to an uneven shape and again splits the pipe or causes a leak between PTFE and spigot. My advice would be for you to get an old braided brake pipe and take one of the fittings apart, seeing how it's actually made is frightening. In fact just go and look at a few braided pipes used in brakes and see how many appear to be damp near the fitting. That dampness is caused by leaking brake fluid, if you don't believe me have it pressure tested by a hydraulic company. A PROPERLY MADE BRAIDED PIPE IS VERY GOOD AND I HAVE NO HESITATIONS USING ONE FOR MY BRAKES. Unfortunately it's just so easy to un-properly make one ! The difference between one made too loose and leaking, and one too tight and leaking / damaged can be as little as half a turn of the nut. The only way you can tell braided is damaged is with a professional extended pressure test. I used to make, fit and sell braided, and I couldn't tell by looking whether it was going to pass, does that tell you something?
NYLON hose; Cut it with anything that doesn't crimp it, fit back nut and olive, then assemble. No it doesn't like damage but then it isn't easy to bloody damage ! It'll stand a fair amount of abrasion without rupturing, it takes impact damage very well, one thing it really doesn't like is kinking, when you kink it the area generally turns white (on black pipe) in fact any damage turns white !
NYLON is crap? Well then maybe you should tell the trucker behind you, because its nylon that's stopping his TRUCK ! NYLON quick couplings are very bad for flow, and illegal in a braking system, doesn't exactly stop them being used though. I'm not suprised since they can take more than the burst pressure of the pipe ! FIRSTLY HIGHPOWER NYLON PIPE IS NOT THE SAME AS INDUSTRIAL PNEUMATICS PIPE, I've seen this mentioned a few times and people "in the know" will look in the catalogues for similar pipe and see "NYLON pressure pipe" 1000psi is verging on and in many cases over the BURST pressure for this pipe, this means total failure at any time. HIGHPOWER pipe has a "working pressure" of (I think) 1450psi, this means it can be expected to contain 1450psi indefinitely (for "ever"). Regarding heat, well generally it has the same resistance to heat as braided, but in my opinion "why the hell aren't you fitting a heat proof sleeve"?
Regarding running hoses through the car versus underneath. On a road car what's the problem ? Even Johnny nova boy can run a cable for his amp through the car without causing a fire. On a competition car then maybe I'm thick, but since all rule makers tend to be a little on the slow side doesn't everyone install a channel down the car for fuel, brake, and nitrous lines ? Twenty thousand on an engine but minimum on shell prep?
Choosing the correct spark plugs
Spark plugs & nitrous performance
Quite often, a factory type wide-gap projected nose plug will produce a detonation condition after a few seconds of nitrous use. The detonation is not due to the heat range, it occurs because the ground strap of the spark plug becomes a glow plug instead of a spark plug. The ground strap is too long to dissipate the extra heat produced by the extra nitrous power. The correct solution is to replace the plugs with units that have shorter ground straps. By doing this, you will shorten the heat path from the ground strap to the plug base. It is also wise to go one or two heat ranges colder when using larger amounts of gas.
Keeping Nitrous Cool
VERY IMPORTANT!!! I can't stress enough on how important it is to keep the nitrous in liquid form as long as possible. This denser form is where maximum power comes from.
1) Keep supply line from bottle/bottles to nitrous solenoid as short as possible. Excess length just promotes vaporization.
2) Route the nitrous supply line along the coolest possible path. Under car exhaust heat can start premature vaporization even when not next to the exhaust. A benefit of nylon routed inside if applicable.
3) Mount the solenoids in the coolest spot under the hood, while trying to maintain shortest output line length to injector/injectors. The back of the motor/firewall is the worst place to mount as all the engine heat is blown there when driving.
4) Protect lines from heat. See product section for recommended heat wrap.
Note: These are just tips. Sometimes line routing and solenoid mounting have to be done in a less than ideal location for a given application. Take some extra time to find the best possible placement for nitrous parts as you will only benefit.
Bottle Temp (F) in Relation to Bottle Pressure (Psi)
10.857 lbs. of pressure per 1 degree of Fahrenheit is required to compress nitrous in a liquid form. This is why the chart below will not show temperature and pressure relationship in even numbers. Example: every 10 degrees does not equal an even 100 psi. increase or decrease.
Note: Since atmospheric air pressure is constantly changing, the numbers below are approximations. A pressure gauge will give more accurate readings.
Bottle Temp(left) vs. Bottle Pressure(right)
-30 / 67
-20 / 203
-10 / 240
0 / 283
10 / 335
20 / 387
32 / 460
40 / 520
50 / 590
60 / 675
70 / 760
80 / 865
97 / 1069
"Time" based progressive vs. "RPM" based
There are a number of reasons why "time based" systems are better than "rpm based".
1) Interfacing with "all" types of ignition systems is IMPOSSIBLE, the only effective and reliable way to achieve rpm link is to replace your ignition system with a unit made by the same company that make the rpm Nitrous system, which means you've have extra expense!!!
2) Most makes of ignition systems suffer some degree of misfires which can interfere with the delivery of Nitrous.
3) If you lose traction with an rpm based unit, the rpm's rise rapidly and the nitrous will be delivered at a higher level to make traction even worse.
4) When you back off to get traction, the second that you are at WOT again you can have to much "X" amount of power again based on a rapid increase to high rpm's. A time based will allow a reset to a much lower power level to resume traction.
5) The most important difference is that a time based system (with the right features like the Maximiser) can "simulate" rpm power deliver BUT an rpm unit can NOT "simulate" time based power delivery.
Whilst a combined rpm / time based system would allow even more features to be added (as will be the case in our "ultimate" unit), for the majority of applications the Maximiser (time based system), currently has more features than most people get the opportunity to benefit from.